Although most of the literature that we have from the ancient Mediterranean and Near East was written by men, we do also have compositions by women – most famously the Greek poet Sappho, as well as other Greek and Roman poets (e.g. Corinna, Nossis, and Sulpicia: for more, see this list of ancient women authors); an ancient Mesopotamian priestess called Enheduanna, who lived in the 23rd century BCE, is often referred to as the first known author in history (although at least some of the hymns attributed to her actually seem to have been composed several centuries later). Similarly, most of the inscriptions that actually survive – including letters, archival documents, grave markers, public or legal texts, and religious dedications – will have been both commissioned and physically written/inscribed by men; even in cases where the text makes it clear that a woman is ultimately responsible for it, it is not necessarily the case that she actually wrote it (e.g. stone inscriptions would be carved by specialist craftspeople, probably men; letters were frequently dictated to scribes, mostly ditto). But we do have some ancient texts which show evidence of literate women actually engaging in the practice of writing, and it’s those – or at least a small selection of them – that I’d like to look at for this International Women’s Day post.
The most famous example from the Roman world comes from Roman Britain, specifically from the fort of Vindolanda near Hadrian’s Wall, where a large number of wooden writing tablets, with letters and administrative documents written in ink, have been found, mostly from around 100 CE. Amongst them is this letter, sent by a woman called Claudia Severa – the wife of an officer at another fort – to her friend Sulpicia Lepidina, the wife of the commander at Vindolanda, to invite her to a birthday party:
Happy International Women’s Day! To celebrate, I’d like to share a quick round-up of a few relevant blogposts and articles about women (and more broadly about gender and sexuality) in the ancient world, as well as about women classicists and archaeologists.
Sententiae Antiquae has been sharing ancient literary texts written by women, such as Erinna (shown with the better-known Sappho in the painting above) and Nossis – keep following them all month for more!
I’ve written before about the #WCCWiki project, which aims to improve the representation of women classicists and other scholars of the ancient world on Wikipedia – why not check out some of our recently-created articles, such as Frazelia Campbell, a black classics teacher in the late 19th/early 20th century US; Raksha Dave, an archaeologist and TV presenter who featured on Time Team; Véronique Dasen, who works on ancient magic and medicine; and many others. We’re also always looking for new people to join the project – no previous Wikipedia experience required!
And finally, I wrote a post last International Women’s Day about Alice Kober, who made incredibly important contributions towards the eventual decipherment of Linear B, and whose story is well worth a read!
Please do share any other articles you’ve enjoyed reading lately (or have written!) in the comments 🙂
As today is International Women’s Day, I want to celebrate the woman without whose work it’s not an exaggeration to say my field of research might well not even exist today: Alice E. Kober, the American classicist who was instrumental in laying the groundwork for the eventual decipherment of the prehistoric Greek Linear B script (first discovered at Knossos on Crete in 1900, and representing a then-unknown language).
Kober (1906-1950) had a full-time job teaching Classics at Brooklyn College, New York; apart from a year spent as a Guggenheim Fellow, which allowed her to work full-time on research, all of her work on Linear B was therefore done in what little spare time she must have had left after teaching. And yet Kober’s research established the methodology which would later enable the decipherment of the script, which means that researchers like me can now read and analyse the Linear B texts in order to reconstruct the society of Late Bronze Age Greece. Continue reading “International Women’s Day: celebrating Alice Kober”